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    • Sugar And The Alternatives

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    •  3/5/2012 12:58:54 PM
    • I thought that today we would talk a little about sugar and sugar alternatives.  I just finished making some delicious granola (recipe to come) with a few sugar alternatives (like palm sugar and turbinado).  I thought that I should at least touch on these before introducing them in recipes (especially for the newbies).

       

      There is a LOT of talk about sugar these days, particularly sugar alternatives. I have a definite sweet tooth which you can read more about here, so I am always interested in any "sweet talk".

       

      I think most people (or at least most people on this site) can agree that the good-old white powdery stuff we call sugar is NOT good for us...for lots of reasons.  As a result, we have seen a plethora of products come onto the market to take its place.  The problem is knowing which ones are better than others.  I was going to write all about each one and then I found a great article (see below) that does a great job. 

       

      I thought I would at least mention a few of the ones that I use. I also wanted to give you all an idea of price.  The easiest way for me to do that was to just check out some online prices and then do it based on 16 oz.

       


      The first is stevia and can generally be found everywhere these days (keep in mind that Truvia is slightly different).  The main thing I use stevia for is my oatmeal and my herbal tea.  I rarely bake with it or use it for any other reason, but I always have it on hand (every once in a while I will sweeten a smoothie with it).  The cost is about $28 for 16oz, but that number is kind of deceiving because you use such a small quantity.

       

       

       

      Honey is probably my favorite alternative to sugar right now.   I have found a local "bee-man" where I buy raw, unfiltered honey.  I love it and the cost is minimal when compared to some of the other alternatives like maple syrup or agave nectar. Cost is around $3-4 /lb. 

       

       

       

      I definitely participated in the agave rage, but it has worn off quite a bit.  I once heard someone say, "Sugar is sugar is sugar!"  Meaning that they are all VERY low in nutrients and your body responds to them all very similarly (except for maybe diabetics).  So if you are NOT diabetic, it seems it just comes down to preference and taste.  I prefer the taste of honey to agave, and it's cheaper, so I have to admit that I have kind of fallen off the agave band wagon. (Cost about $6)

       

       

       

      Maple syrup is something that I almost always have in the house.  I use it mainly for breakfast items like waffles and pancakes and I occasionally use it in baking.  It is quite expensive (about $10 for 16 oz), but as far as sugar goes it seems to be on the upper end for nutrients.

       

       

       

       

      Some say that brown rice syrup will not spike your blood sugar levels that way that other sweeteners will. However, I have also read the exact opposite.  So quite frankly I'm not sure.  It have some in the house and the truth is that I rarely ever use it. It is also on the expensive side (about $7) and I bought it when I was experimenting with different sweeteners.

       

       

       

       

      This is a picture of Palm sugar in a puck-like form that I buy it (hey I'm Canadian and it looks like a puck to me...I think the correct term is a sugar "cake" though).  Anyway, I have been a big fan of palm sugar for quite a while now and I usually talk about it in my cooking classes.  I like it because it is less processed that sugar (it comes from the sap of a palm tree and is processed similarly to maple syrup), it is low on the glycemic index, and it is inexpensive.  It has been used in Asia as a sweetener for centuries and is gaining more popularity in America.  Health food stores have started to carry it, but I buy it for a fraction of the cost (under $2) at my local Asian stores.  Right now I have only used it in things that are heated (like soups, sauces and syrups - like the one I poured over the granola today).  I keep meaning to put it into my Vitamix to turn it into a powder form so that I can bake with it.  In fact I have been wanting to make some carrot muffins, so I will experiment and report back :) 

       

      Coconut sugar has emerged on the market and is actually a different product, but often the 2 are labelled the same (see the picture below).  So if you specifically need on or the other make sure you dig a little deeper.  Both are natural sweeteners that come from trees but coconut sugar comes from the buds of coconut tree flowers.

       



      So the bottom line is that you just need to figure out what works best for you; both for you tastes and your budget. 

      Here is a great article going into even more depth that I found at www.organiclifestylemagazine.com.

       

      Glucose

      Glucose is the simple sugar made by the body through digestion of carbohydrates. It is the body's chief source of energy. Sometimes glucose is called dextrose.

      Sucrose

      Sucrose is what we commonly refer to as table sugar. It is made from highly processed sugar cane or sugar beets. The composition of sucrose is a combination of glucose and fructose, which separates during digestion. Pure sucrose is devoid of any nutrients.


      Fructose

      Fructose, commonly called fruit sugar, is a simple sugar found in honey, tree fruits, berries, and melons. But don't be fooled into thinking fructose on a label means you are eating fruit sugar. Pure crystalline fructose comes from two sources: corn or sucrose (table sugar). Corn starch is processed to release fructose. Sucrose (table sugar) is enzymatically hydrolyzed to separate into glucose and fructose. Crystalline fructose is pure fructose from one of these two sources.

      High fructose syrup

      High Fructose Corn Syrup is made from starches like corn, wheat, and rice. High fructose syrups contain nearly equal amounts of glucose and fructose, a composition nearly identical to sucrose (table sugar). The reason high fructose corn syrup is so abundant in our processed food is simple-it's cheaper than sugar. Because we highly subsidize corn and place tariffs on sugar imports, high fructose corn syrup is much less expensive.

      Pure fructose is 1.2-1.8 times sweeter than sucrose so less is needed for the same level of sweetness. It is low on the glycemic index, therefore it does not lead to peaks and dips in the body's glucose levels. But fructose is processed in the liver. When too much fructose enters the liver at once, the liver can't process fructose as a sugar. Instead, the liver turns excess fructose into fats-triglycerides. When you incorporate these fats into our bodies cells (the cell membranes) triglycerides cause these cells to be insulin resistant. This is the reason that high fructose corn syrup leads to diabetes. Fructose is linked to significant increases of both cholesterol and triglycerides. And remember-fructose, like sucrose-is a highly refined processed sugar devoid of any nutrition.

      Also check out Issue 5, High Fructose Corn Syrup, A Not So Sweet Surprise

      Maltose

      Maltose, also known as malt sugar, is half as sweet as sucrose (table sugar). It is produced from starch (barley, wheat, rice or other grains). It has been produced in China since 200 B.C. We use it in making beer and as an additive to some processed foods.

      In our bodies, maltose is formed as the first step in digestion of starchy foods. It is then broken down into glucose.

      Lactose

      Lactose is the sugar found naturally in milk.

      Date Sugar

      Date sugar is 100% dehydrated dates ground into small pieces. It is a whole food, high in fiber, vitamins, and minerals. Date sugar can be substituted for granulated sugar or brown sugar cup for cup, but it does not dissolve in liquids. Most alternative health practitionars consider Date Sugar to be a healthy sugar alternative. We did not include it in the chart because we could not find its glycemic index.

      Sugar Alcohols or Polyols

      Maltitol, maltitol syrup, sorbitol, mannitol, xylitol, lactitol, erythritol, and isomalt are examples of sugar alcohols. They occur naturally in plants, but are usually manufactured from sugars and starches. Sugar alcohols have fewer calories than sugars because they are not completely absorbed by the body. They can ferment in the intestines and cause gas, bloating, and diarrhea.

      Glycemic Index

      When carbohydrates are digested, glucose is released into the bloodstream. The glycemic index is a comparative measurement of the amount of glucose released by a particular food over a two to three-hour period.

      But the GI rating alone does not give you all of the information you need to determine a food's effect on your blood sugar. It only tells you how quickly the carbs in a food should turn into sugar in your blood. The glycemic load or GL tells you how much of that carb the food contains. And of course the amount you eat of that particular food is also a huge factor in the rise of your blood sugar.

      Foods ranked low on the GI scale release glucose slowly and steadily without a sudden spike of glucose in the blood.  A spike in glucose results in a large insulin release, which is more likely to store glucose as fat rather than use it as fuel. Plus a high release of insulin often results in a rapid drop in blood sugar, causing hunger. So you eat candy. Your blood sugar spikes. Insulin is released. Your blood sugar drops. You eat more candy. The sugar rollercoaster ride begins.

      It is important to remember that the GI scale is simply a comparative scale; it compares one food's blood glucose response to another. There are many other factors to consider when choosing your food. Start with the basic question. Is this food dense with nutrients? 

       

      Sugars & Substitutes with their Glycemic Index
      Artificial Sweeteners
      N/A
      Never a Healthy Sugar Alternative
      All artificial chemical sweeteners are toxic and can indirectly lead to weight gain, the very reason many people consume them. They should be avoided. In fact, given a choice between high fructose corn syrup and artificial sweeteners, we recommend high fructose corn syrup by far (though it's essentially asking if you should consume poison or worse poison).
      Stevia
      0
      Best Healthy Sugar Alternative
      Though it is 200-300 times sweeter than table sugar, stevia is not a sugar. Unlike other popular sweeteners, it has a glycemic index rating of less than 1 and therefore does not feed candida (yeast) or cause any of the numerous other problems associated with sugar consumption. Read more about stevia at Organic Lifestyle Magazine (OLM). Please note that Stevia and Truvia are not the same thing.
      Xylitol
      7

      Xylitol is a natural sugar alcohol sweetener found in the fibers of fruits and vegetables which can cause bloating, diarrhea, and flatulence with initial consumption. It's said to be safe for pregnant women, and is said to possibly treat ear infections, osteoposis, respiratory infections, candida, and is it even helps fight cavities. In fact, in Finland, virtually all chewing gum is sweetened with xylitol.

      Agave Nectar
      15-30
      A sweet syrup made from the Blue Agave plant, Agave Nectar is obtained by the extraction and purification of "sap" from the agave plant, which is broken down by natural enzymes into the monosaccharides (simple sugars): mainly fructose (70-75%) and dextrose (20-26%). Read more about agave nectar at OLM.
      Fructose 
      17
      Though fructose has a low glycemic index rating, fructose consumption should be limited. Fructose is linked to heart disease as it raises triglycerides and cholesterol. It is devoid of nutrition.
      Brown Rice Syrup
      85
      It is not recommended for diabetics, since its sweetness comes from maltose, which is known to cause spikes in blood sugar.
      Raw Honey
      30
      A Healthy Sugar Alternative in moderation        
      With antioxidants, minerals, vitamins, amino acids, enzymes, carbohydrates, and phytonutrients, raw, unprocessed honey is considered a superfood by many alternative health care practitioners and a remedy for many health ailments. Choose your honey wisely. There is nothing beneficial about processed honey. Read more about honey at OLM.
      Coconut Palm Sugar
      35
      Originally made from the sugary sap of the Palmyra palm , the date palm or sugar date palm (Phoenix sylvestris). It's also made from the sap of coconut palms. With a relatively low glycemic index, Cocnut palm sugar is the new rage among health nuts. It's often called "coconut nectar sugar" or "coconut sugar".
      Apple Juice
      40
      Fresh apple juice is good for you, though we recommend eating fresh raw whole apples. Concentrated apple juice (sometimes used as a sweetener) is closer to refined sugar than fresh apple juice.
      Barley Malt Syrup
      42
      Barley malt syrup is considered to be one of the healthiest sweeteners in the natural food industry. Barley malt is made by soaking and sprouting barley to make malt, then combining it with more barley and cooking this mixture until the starch is converted to sugar. The mash is then strained and cooked down to syrup or dried into powder.
       Amasake
      43
      This is an ancient, Oriental whole grain sweetener made from cultured brown rice. It has a thick, pudding-like consistency. It's not easy to find in the U.S., but it is a great alternative to refined table sugar.
      Sugar Cane Juice
      43

      Healthy Sugar Alternative in moderation
      Sugar cane juice has many nutrients and other beneficial properties and is said by some health practitioners to be almost as medicinal as raw honey.

      Organic Sugar
      47
      Organic sugar comes from sugar cane grown without the use of chemicals or pesticides. It is usually darker than traditional white sugar because it contains some molasses. (It has not been processed to the degree white sugar is processed).
      Maple Syrup
      54
      Maple syrup is made by boiling sap collected from natural growth maple trees during March & April. It is refined sap and is therefore processed.  It has a high glycemic index, and though it is much more nutritious then refined table sugar and high fructose corn syrup, there are better choices.
      Evaporated Cane Juice
      55
      Evaporated cane juice is often considered unrefined sugar, but juicing is a refining process, and evaporating refines further. Though better than turbinado, cane juice (unevaporated) is a better choice as a sweetener.
      Black Strap Molasses
      55
      White refined table sugar is sugar cane with all the nutrition taken out. Black strap molasses is all of that nutrition that was taken away. A quality organic (must be organic!) molasses provides iron, calcium, copper, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium and zinc, and is alkalizing to the body.
      Turbinado
      65
      Turbinado sugar is partially processed sugar, also called raw sugar.
      Raw Sugar
      Raw sugar
      65
      Raw sugar is not actually raw sugar. It is processed, though not as refined as common white table sugar. Therefore, given a choice between raw and white, choose raw. There are many different variations of raw sugar with many different names depending on how refined it is.
      Cola (and most other sodas)
      70
      Though cola has a lower GI ranking then some might expect, there are many other reasons to avoid cola, or any type of soda. There is nothing beneficial to the human body inside a can of soda (not to mention we should avoid drinking out of aluminum cans!).
      Corn Syrup
      75
      Corn syrup has very little nutrition and should be avoided.
      Refined, Pasteurized Honey
      75
      The nutrition is gone, and there is often high fructose corn syrup added to processed honey. Refined pasteurized honey is no better than white table sugar.
      Refined Table Sugar
      80
      Conventionally grown, chemically processed, and striped of all beneficial properties, many health advocates believe that refined sugar is one of the two leading causes (high fructose corn syrup is the other) of nearly every health ailment known to man (or woman or child). Not only does it have a high GI ranking, but it also is extremely acidic to the body causing calcium and other mineral depletion from bones and organs (sugar is alkaline but has a very acidic effect on the body).
      High Fructose Corn Syrup
      87
      Many health advocates believe that high fructose corn syrup and refined sugar are the two biggest contributors to health ailments in our society. High fructose corn syrup is a combination of sucrose and fructose.
      Glucose (AKA Dextrose)
      100
      White bread was the benchmark, but for consistency glucose now holds the rating at 100.
      Maltodextrin
      150
      Foods that have maltodextrin often say "Low Sugar" or "Complex Carbohydrate", but this sweetener should be avoided!

       

      Please note that the glycemic index numbers here are estimates. There are many variables that help determine how quickly a sugar is absorbed. These numbers represant an average of many different respected studies. In addition, it is very important to note that the glycemic index does not define what is a healthy sugar and what is an unhealthy sugar. There are many other variables.

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